IPPD is an expansion of concurrent engineering utilizing a systematic
approach to the integrated, concurrent development of a product and its
associated manufacturing and sustainment processes to satisfy customer needs.
IPPD Defined: A management process that integrates all activities
from product concept through production/field support, using a multi-functional
team, to simultaneously optimize the product and its manufacturing and sustainment
processes to meet cost and performance objectives. Its key tenets are as
- Customer Focus - The primary objective of IPPD is to satisfy
customer's needs better, faster and at less cost. The customer needs should
determine the nature of the product and its associated processes.
- Concurrent Development of Products and Processes - Processes
should be developed concurrently with products which they support. It is
critical that the processes used to manage, develop, manufacture, verify,
test, deploy, operate, support, train people, and eventually dispose of
the product be considered during development. Product and process design
and performance should be kept in balance.
- Early and Continuous Life Cycle Planning - Planning for a product
and process should begin early in the science & technology phase (especially
advanced development) and extend throughout the product's life cycle. Early
life cycle planning, which includes customers, functions, and suppliers,
lays a solid foundation for the various phases of a product and its processes.
Key program events should be defined so that resources can be applied and
the impact of resource constraints better understood and managed.
- Maximize Flexibility for Optimization and Use of Contractor Unique
Approaches - Requests for Proposal (RFP's) and contract should provide
maximum flexibility for optimization and use of contractor unique processes
and commercial specifications, standards and practices.
- Encourage Robust Design and Improved Process Capability - Encourage
use of advanced design and manufacturing techniques that promote achieving
quality through design, products with little sensitivity to variations
in the manufacturing process (robust design)
and focus on process capability and continuous process improvement. Utilize
such tools as "Six-Sigma" process control and lean/agile manufacturing
concepts to advantage.
- Event Driven Scheduling - A scheduling framework should be established
which relates program events to their associated accomplishments and accomplishment
criteria. An event is considered complete only when the accomplishments
associated with the event have been completed as measured by the accomplishment
criteria. This event-driven scheduling reduces risk by ensuring that product
and process maturity are incrementally demonstrated prior to beginning
- Multidisciplinary Teamwork - Multidisciplinary teamwork is essential
to the integrated and concurrent development of a product and its processes.
The right people at the right place at the right time are required to make
timely decisions. Team decisions should be based on the combined input
of the entire team (e.g. engineering, manufacturing, test, logistics, financial
management, contracting personnel) to include customers and suppliers.
Each team member needs to understand their role and support the role of
the other members, as well as understand the constraints under which other
team members operate. Communication within teams and between teams should
be open with team success emphasized and rewarded.
- Empowerment - Decisions should be driven to the lowest level
commensurate with risk. Resources should be allocated at levels consistent
with authority, responsibility, and the ability of the people. The team
should be given authority, responsibility, and resources to manage their
product and its risk commensurate with the team's capabilities. The team
should accept responsibility and be held accountable for the results of
- Seamless Management Tools - A framework should be established
which relates products and processes at all levels to demonstrate dependency
and interrelationships. A single management system should be established
that relates requirements, planning, resource allocation, execution, and
program tracking over the product's life cycle. This integrated approach
helps ensure teams have all available information thereby enhancing team
decision-making at all levels. Capabilities should be provided to share
technical and business information throughout the product life cycle through
the use of acquisition and support databases and software tools for accessing,
exchanging, and viewing information.
- Proactive Identification and Management of Risk - Critical cost,
schedule and technical parameters related to system characteristics should
be identified from risk analyses and user requirements. Technical and business
performance measurement plans, with appropriate metrics,
should be developed and compared to best-in-class industry benchmarks to
provide continuing verification of the degree of anticipated and actual
achievement of technical and business parameters.